Armored vehicles USA Canadian / USA (1915) Armored car - 1 + 40 built
The Thomas B. Jeffery Company was founded in 1902, in Kenosha, Wisconsin. It replaced the bicycle manufacturer Gormully & Jeffery and remained active until 1916, when the company was purchased by Charles W. Nash and renamed Nash Motors. A wide range of models was built since 1907, including the famous Rambler A model. The Jeffery No. 1 became, in effect, the first armored car built by the United States government for the regular Army. However, many were already on duty with the National Guard.
The number 1
Since the company was known for its all-wheel drive vehicles at the time, it was the first chassis supplier to the US Army for testing. The single Jeffery n. 1, produced for evaluation in 1916, weighed 5.3 tons (empty), with 4 × 4 steering, a turning radius of 8.5 feet. The metal wheels were covered with rubber bands. It was imposing and quite frightening at a height of 2.5 m, armed with four 0.130 cal (7.62 mm) Benet-Mercie rifles, with two others in reserve. They could fire from the two fully rotating turrets, from the roof of the main combat compartment and from behind, onto a compartment located above the rear axle, each with an elevation from -10 to +80 degrees.
Access was guaranteed by side doors. The front engine compartment was ventilated from below, since the radiator had no front slits, but could be reached through a front hatch and two side doors. The engine was a Jeffery Petrol -U Buda with 4 cylinders in line, liquid cooled which gave 25 HP at 25 rpm (21.4 kW). It was coupled with a 6-speed manual forward / 6 reverse gear. There was also a 6 V electrical system for lighting and equipment. Jeffery could wade a river about 40 cm deep.
Rare Jeffery camouflage quad 1915
The vehicle joined other models (Mack, Locomobile and White) in General John Pershing's punitive expedition of 1916 against Pancho Villa in Mexico, which was preceded by a training session in Columbus, New Mexico. The expedition remained on the border with Mexico and there is no trace of fighting. After 1917, Jeffery No. 1 spent the rest of his active life in Maryland before retirement. There is a single replica in the Pancho Villa State Park.
At about the same time, the Jeffery-Russel armored car was developed in Canada on the basis of the same Jeffery quad chassis. The vehicles were lower, lighter, with a single turret armed with a liquid-cooled Vickers .303 (7.7 mm) machine gun. The rear turret has been replaced by a fixed observation post and barbettes with gun attachments have been mounted on the front and rear sides. Other changes included nippers on the nose, tool boxes on the back and sides, no side doors and many hull details.
40 of these vehicles were built by the Russel Motor Car company in 1915, serving with the battery of Eaton machine guns. However, later in the same year they were shipped to Britain, where they would languish in a warehouse until 1917. The vehicles were split and 20 or 22 were stationed in Ireland. However, it appears that they were not involved in the fighting during the Irish War of Independence, and appear to have been demolished when the British retired in 1922. The rest were sent to the Indian command of India, used for the "Field Force" lined up against the Mohmand rise of Haji Mullah, the northwestern frontier of India. The Indian Jefferies mainly patrolled unpaved tracks, which quickly highlighted the vehicle's limited off-road capabilities due to tight solid tires. The speed was kept below 12 mph (19 km / h).
Jeffery No. 1 Specifications
Dimensions (LWH) 216 x 76 x 96 in (5.48 x 1.93 x 2.45 m)
Total weight, battle ready 5.3 empty tons, 5.7 fully loaded
crew4 (driver, co-pilot / commander, scorers)
Propulsion 4 cyl. Jeffery liquid-cooled petrol engine, 29 hp
Maximum speed (estimate) 20 mph (32 km / h)
Operating range (estimated) 240 km
Armament 1x Benet-Mercie machine gun
2x Colt-Browning M1895 machine guns
Suspension 4 × 4 leaf springs
Armor 0.15-0.20 in (3.8 to 5.1 mm)
Total production 1